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Tuna, albacore

Thunnus alalunga

Method of production - Caught at sea
Capture method - Troll
Capture area - North Pacific (FAO 61,71,77)
Stock area - North Pacific
Stock detail - All Areas
Accreditation -
Fish type - Oily fish

Sustainability rating Click for explaination of rating

This fish, caught by the methods and in the area listed above, is not the most sustainable choice of fish to eat. Click on the rating icon above to read more and on the alternatives tab below to find more sustainable fish to eat.


Sustainability overview

Whilst biomass reference points (relating to MSY) have not been established for the North Pacific albacore fisheries, the current stock status meets the internationally agreed objective to not allow stocks to fall below the average of the 10 worst historical levels. Biomass has been quite stable in recent years, and whilst the fisheries were believed to be subject to overfishing, they are not currently. The troll and pole and line fisheries are very selective and represent the most sustainable option. The longline fishery here is associated with the bycatch of vulnerable species, such as sharks, turtles and seabirds in particular. Vessels are required to employ at least two bird mitigation measures, such as weighted baits and streamer lines, yet the widespread monitoring of these measures remains deficient. There are a number of albacore fisheries in the North Pacific that are certified as sustainable, well managed fisheries by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) which represent the best choice.

Biology

Tuna belong to the family Scombridae. They are large, oceanic fish and are seasonally migratory, some making trans-oceanic journeys. Albacore are found throughout the world's temperate, sub-tropical and tropical oceans, although they are less common in the tropics. They are found from the surface to a depth of 600m where they often form mixed schools with skipjack, yellowfin and bluefin tuna. They grow more slowly than skipjack and yellowfin tuna, reaching a maximum size of 140cm, 60kg in weight and maximum age of 15 years. Albacore mature when about 90cm length and 4-5 years old. Spawning normally occurs between January and July.

Stock information

Stock area
North Pacific

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Stock information

Management

Most tuna stocks range across and are accessed by numerous coastal states, making harmonised and effective management of these individual stocks very difficult. As a result, intergovernmental Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) have been established. There are five main tuna RFMOs worldwide and it is their responsibility to carry out data collection, scientific monitoring and management of these fisheries. The responsibility for the management of Albacore in the North Pacific is shared between the Anti-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission (WCPFC). Whilst the RFMOs are responsible for the development of management and conservation measures, the degree to which they are implemented, monitored and enforced still varies significantly between coastal states. For this reason, it is important to choose tuna that has been caught by vessels that are well regulated by their flag state. A number of American and Canadian albacore fisheries are certified as sustainable and well managed by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and represent the best options.

There is no Total Allowable Catch (TAC) set for this stock however country set catch quotas have reportedly been adhered to since 2009. Both IATTC and WCPFC have measures in place to limit fishing effort or fishing capacity to not exceed the level experienced in 2005.

To help address IUU, both the IATTC and the WCPFC maintain an IUU Vessel list as well as a register of large longliners that are authorised to target albacore; it is also prohibited to undertake transhipments at sea between purse seiners (Some exemptions apply) and requires all other transhipments to be documented and 100% observed as part of the regional observer programme.

Capture information

Approximately 23% of the albacore in the North Pacific is caught in surface troll fisheries which is a labour intensive yet very selective method of fishing with virtually no impact on non-target species. Troll and pole and line caught albacore represents the most sustainable option.

Read more about capture methods


References
IATTC, 2013. The fishery for tunas and billfish in the Eastern Pacific Ocean in2012. 4th meeting of scientific advisory committee. La Jolla, California (USA), 29 April -3 May 2013. Document SAC 04-03(Revised). Available at http://www.iattc.org/Meetings/Meetings2013/MaySAC/Pdfs/SAC-04-03-Fishery-in-the-EPO-2012REV.pdf [Accessed Nov 2013].
IATTC, 2012. Scientific meeting. La Jolla, California (USA), 15-18 May 2012. Available at http://www.iattc.org/Meetings/Meetings2012/May/PDFs/SAC-03-Meeting-report.pdf [Accessed Dec 2012].
ISSF, 2013. ISSF Tuna Stock Status Update, 2013(2): Status of the world fisheries for tuna. ISSF Technical Report 2013-04A. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington, D.C., USA. Available at http://iss-foundation.org/resources/downloads/?did=487 [Accessed Nov 2013].
www.fishbase.org [Accessed Nov 2013].
WCFPC 2011. Stock assessment of albacore tuna in the North Pacific Ocean in 2011. Northern Committee seventh regular session, 6-9 September 2011,Sapporo, Japan. Available at http://www.wcpfc.int/node/3948 [Accessed Dec 2012].

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