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Mackerel

Scomber scombrus

Method of production - Caught at sea
Capture method - Handline
Capture area - North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area - Southern, Western & North Sea
Stock detail - South West
Accreditation -
Fish type - Oily fish

Sustainability rating Under assessment


Sustainability overview

The best choice for mackerel remains fish caught locally using traditional hand lining methods.

Biology

Mackerel is a fast swimming species belonging to a group of fish known as the scombrid family, which are related to the tuna. They are found in brackish marine waters in depths of up to 1000m (though more normally in depths of 0-200m). Abundant in cold and temperate shelf areas, they form large schools near the surface. They overwinter in deeper waters but move closer to shore in spring when water temperatures range between 11 and 14C. Mainly diurnal, they feed on zooplankton and small fish. Mackerel are batch spawners, they spawn mainly in March to July; the eggs and larvae are pelagic. After spawning, the adults feed very actively, moving around in small shoals. By 3 years old, most mackerel are mature (at a length of approximately 28cm). Females shed their eggs in about twenty separate batches over the course of the spawning season. Juvenile mackerel grow quickly and can reach 22cm after one year, and 30cm after 2 years. Mackerel can attain a maximum length of about 70cm and weight of 3.4kg.They may live for more than 20 years.

Stock information

Stock area
Southern, Western & North Sea

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Stock information
Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel is assessed as one stock, but comprises three spawning components: the combined southern and western components and a separate North Sea spawning component. Only the North Sea component is sufficiently distinct to be clearly identified as a separate spawning component. Catch and survey data from recent years indicate that the stock has expanded northwestwards during spawning and the summer feeding migration. This distributional change may reflect changes in food availability and may be linked to increased water temperature, and/or increased stock size. The spawning component of the stock has increased considerably since 2002 and remains high, above all required levels of sustainability. The results of the recent egg survey (Spring 2013) indicate the stock has increased substantially, showing a doubling of the stock since 2004 and a 30% increase between 2010 and 2013. The North Sea component, however, has been long depleted and requires maximum possible protection and the recommendation is that measures to protect this component remain in place. Based on the most recent scientific advice (May 2014), the stock is assessed as having full reproductive capacity and is being harvested sustainably. ICES has updated its Autumn 2013 advice and now advises on the basis of the Norway, Faroe Islands, and EU management plan that catches in 2014 should be between 927 000 tonnes and 1,011,000 tonnes. An increase of between 4 and 14 % on that recommended in September 2013. In 2013 ICES advised that landings in 2014 should be no more than 889,886 t; In 2012 the advice for 2013 was for catches between 497,000 and 542,000 t, corresponding to a catch reduction between 42% and 47% compared to the estimated catches in 2012. In 2011 the advice for 2012 was for catches between 586,000 and 639,000 t. The last analytical assessment for NEA mackerel stock was carried out in 2012. Since that assessment, the perception of the stock has changed and is now estimated to have varied between 2 million tonnes in the late 1990s and early 2000s and 5 million tonnes in recent years, compared to 1.6 million tonnes and 3 million tonnes in the 2012 assessment. The previous assessment in 2013 (based on trends in the egg survey) suggested that Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) was increasing, but that exploitation was unknown. Fishing mortality (F) is currently assessed as decreasing and is now below FMSY and significantly lower than previously estimated. To reflect the new perception of the stock and the revised precautionary reference points ICES also recommends that the management plan should be reviewed and possibly revised. Catches of mackerel have been increasing since 2005 and have been around 900,000 t since 2010.

Management

Since the introduction of the coastal states agreement in the mid 90's between the EU, Norway and Faroe Islands, the management of this stock has evolved into a successful, science-based plan with fishing effort set at a sustainable level. The management plan for the NEA mackerel stock, evaluated by ICES as precautionary, was agreed by Norway, Faroe Islands, and the EU in October 2008. Until recently much of the commercial mackerel fishery in the northeast Atlantic was certified as an environmentally responsible fishery by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). However, since 2009, there has been no international agreement on TAC and the MSC certification was suspended in 2012 when agreement on international fishing effort could not be reached. Since 2009 the stock has been targeted by the Icelandic and Faroese fleets who have set autonomous quotas outside any agreement. More recently Greenland has established an experimental fishery with no management measures in place. Although part of the mackerel stock now includes Icelandic waters as feeding ground during the summer months, the reproduction of the stock (i.e. the egg production) still takes place in EU waters and the main feeding ground is still the Norwegian Sea - this was evidenced in 2013 by the ICES triennial egg survey which measured the areas and concentration of spawning. An action plan, aimed at solving the ongoing dispute in the North East Atlantic, has been submitted to the MSC by the Mackerel Industry Northern Sustainability Alliance (MINSA), a group of the 7 MSC certified mackerel fisheries, whose certificates are currently suspended as a result of the impasse. The successful development of the action plan means that the fisheries certificates may remain suspended until the situation is resolved, when they will be re-instated without the need for a full reassessment. In an unprecedented show of support for the MINSA fleet, MSC and the Certification Bodies have agreed in the exceptional circumstances to further extend the period of suspension. The current suspension of the MSC certification of North East Atlantic mackerel fisheries has now been suspended for a further 12 month period until July 2015. The reason for this is that whilst in suspension, the certificate transpired and the fishery has to be re-audited. This process is expected to take 8 to 12 months and MSC certified mackerel will be available from Autumn 2015. In March 2014 a 5-year agreement was reached between the coastal states, EU, Norway and Faroes. This agreement will re-establish a long-term management plan for the fishery based on scientific advice from ICES to ensure its sustainable exploitation. The agreement includes sharing arrangements for North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) for Russia and the High Seas, along with provisions for Iceland in 2014.

Capture information

The handline fishery in southwest England was one of the first fisheries to be certified as an environmentally responsible fishery by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) in 2001. Due to the cost of maintaining it a decision not to renew its certification was made in February 2012. The fishery is located off the southwest coast of England, from Start Point to Hartland Point within UK territorial waters; this falls within the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) areas VIIe,f,g & h. Most of the fishing occurs within 6-8 nautical miles of shore and targets mackerel from the western component of the stock. The main ports are Newlyn and Looe, with landings also taking place in Plymouth, St Ives, Mevagissey and other ports. The handline method uses either braided twine or strong nylon lines to which hooks are attached. Coloured plastic or feathers are attached to these hooks to attract fish and the line is weighted with lead. Each handline has 25-30 hooks. Since 1998 the fishery has been granted special quota allocation under authority of the Marine Management Organisation (MMO). Allocation is set at 1,750 tonnes or 0.83% of the UK quota, whichever is the larger. Up to 150 vessels can be fishing in winter. Most of these are under 10m. Many are 5-8 m single-handed open boats. The minimum landing size for mackerel in EU waters is 20cm (30cm in the North Sea). Juvenile mackerel are protected within an area known as the Mackerel Box, an area off the Cornish coast in the South Western Approaches, created in 1981 and extended in 1989, in which there is a ban on targeted fishing for mackerel by trawlers and purse seiners and where handliners are the only fishermen allowed to target mackerel.

Read more about capture methods


References
ICES Advice 2014, Book 9 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2014/2014/mac-nea_update_2014.pdf

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